SAP2000 non Linear | SUPERSAP | PROSAP | ZSOIL | FLAC | UDEC | QUICKSURF and SPATIAL EXPLORER | GALLERIE (Tunnel) | SLOPEX | FLUVIAL HYDRAULICS | HYDROGRAPHY | HYDROGEOLOGY and HYDROLOGY | PARATIE (Sheet pile)

**Software** **Equipment**

The structure own commercial engineering and geotechnical software including:

- SAP2000 non Linear
- SUPERSAP
- PRO-SAP
- ZSOIL
- FLAC
- UDEC
- DIPS, SWEDGE e UNWEDGE
- QUICKSURF and SPATIAL EXPLORER

Together with some in-house developed programs:

- GALLERIE (Tunnel) - For the study of rocks behavior, covering dimensioning and consolidation
- SLOPEX - For the analysis of slope stability
- FLUVIAL HYDRAULICS - Hydraulic of river and torrent
- HYDROGRAPHY - For the study of harbor, beach erosion, breakwater etc.
- HYDROGEOLOGY and HYDROLOGY - Program of Hydrology simulation
- PARATIE (Sheet pile) - Analysis program of anchored sheet piles in elasto - plastic soils

SAP2000 non Linear V 7.11 - General purpose finite element analysis program

SAP2000 N is a general purpose finite element program. Every structure can be modeled using the element library that consist of four elements, namely, a three dimensional FRAME element, prismatic or non prismatic, a three-dimensional SHELL element, a two dimensional ASOLID element and a three dimensional SOLID element. The program has static and dynamic options, that can be activated together in the same run. Load combinations may include results from the static and dynamic analyses. The Program represents the state of the art for the finite element analysis, and represent the research work conducted at the University of California, Berkley, by Professor Edward L.Wilson over the past 25 years.(www.csiberkley.com)

*SUPERSAP* -
General purpose finite element analysis program

SUPERSAP is general purpose finite element analysis program that has: 2- and 3-D Finite Element Linear Static Stress Analysis. Surface and solid FEA modeling using Algor’s geometry/model control center, Superdraw. Surface and solid visualization with animation utility. Complete post processing, CAD interfacing via 2- and 3-D wireframe geometry from virtually any CAD system. Weight, center of gravity and mass moment of inertia processor. Includes extended surface modeling and Hypergen automatic solid tetrahedral (four- or 10-node) mesh generation for FEA modeling. Includes the ability to combine element types and enhanced, specialized beam element modeling. Time history analysis by modal superposition to analyze the result of dynamic impacts on parts using linear natural frequency (modal) analysis (most useful for low frequency), linear transient stress analysis for high frequencies; and response spectrum analysis for earthquakes. Eigenvalue buckling analysis to determine critical buckling loads (beams and plates/shells), random vibration analysis using power spectral density to predict effects of random vibration, linear natural frequency (modal) analysis with load stiffening (beams and plate/shells) and frequency response analysis to predict structural response due to single frequency waveforms.(www.algor.com)

PROSAP is a combined pre and post-processor. The program is used first to generate three dimensional structures, then to view computed results given by SUPERSAP. The program can analyze seismic or static result and create the complete output (relation and draft) for concrete and steel structure (www.2si.it)

ZSOIL is a two-dimensional finite element program for simulates most of the natural process encountered in geotechnical and foundation engineering, including stability, consolidation and creeping. The nonlinear Axisymmetric and Plane strain drivers offer any combination of the following algorithmic options: Automatic evaluation of initial stress conditions, Stability analysis, Ultimate load analysis, Prestress conditions, Consolidation (time dependent process), Volumetric and Deviatoric Creep (time dependent process), Underground and surface excavation procedures. The users is required to define a cross section of the soil medium using only a coarse finite element mesh that captures the essential geometric features. The program automatically generates the dense mesh necessary for the non linear analysis and optimizes the size of the problem by a judicious renumbering scheme. ZSOIL uses uses the most robust numerical algorithms to simulate the nonlinear, time dependent soil behavior according to Drucker-Prager model, Druker-Prager-Cap model and a particular version of Biot's model for the consolidation problem. The program can efficiently simulate many types of loads and soil stress conditions: Gravity fields and initial stress conditions, Water table or water pressure under steady state conditions, Drained soil conditions requiring the use of effective stress, Undrained soil conditions requiring the use of total stress, Explicit definition of Excavation/Construction sequence, Known displacement field applied at vertical or inclined boundaries of the soil medium, Concentrated or distributed forces applied at the boundaries of the soil medium. (www.zace.com)

FLAC Version 3.4 is a two-dimensional explicit finite difference program for solving mining and geotechnical engineering problems. The program simulate the behavior of soils, structures built on soil, rock or other materials that may undergone plastic flow when their yield limits are reached. Materials are represented by elements, or zones, which form a grid that is adjusted by the user to fit the shape of the object to be modeled. Each element behaves according to a prescribed linear or non-linear stress/strain law in response to the applied forces or boundary restraints. The material can yield and flow, and the grid can deform in small and large-strain mode and move with the material that is represented. The explicit, Lanrangian calculation scheme and the mix-discretization zoning technique used in FLAC ensure that plastic collapse and flow are modeled accurately. Because no matrices are formed, large two-dimensional calculations can be made without excessive memory requirements. Several built-in constitutive models are available that permit the simulation of highly non-linear, irreversible response representative of geologic, or similar materials. In addition, FLAC contains many special features such as interface elements, groundwater and consolidation models, structural elements, dynamic and visco-elastic (creep) analysis capabilities. This Version also contains the powerful built-in programming language FISH with which the users can write their own functions to extend FLAC's usefulness and even implement their own constitutive models.(www.winternet.com/~icg/)

The Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC)
is a two-dimensional numerical program based on the **distinct**
element method for **discontinuum** modeling. It simulates the
response of discontinuous media (such as a jointed rock mass)
subjected to either static or dynamic loading. The discontinuous
medium is represented as an assemblage of discrete blocks. The
discontinuities are treated as boundary conditions between
blocks; large displacements along discontinuities and rotations
of blocks are allowed. Individual blocks behave as either rigid
or deformable material. Deformable blocks are subdivided into a
mesh of finite difference elements, and each element responds
according to a prescribed linear or non-linear stress-strain law.
The relative motion of the discontinuities is also governed by
linear or non-linear force-displacement relations for movement in
both the normal and shear directions. UDEC has several built-in
material behavior models, for both the intact blocks and the
discontinuities, which permit the simulation of the response
representative of discontinuous geological or similar materials.
The program is based on a "Lagrangian" calculation
scheme that is well-suited to model the large movements and
deformations of a blocky system. (www.winternet.com/~icg/)

QUICKSURF AND SPATIAL EXPLORER

Quicksurf is a fast, powerful general purpose surface modeling system running inside of AutoCAD Release 14. for generation and annotation of contour maps, profiles, sections and volumetric computation. Quicksurf converts surface mapping data such as point or break line data into contours, grids, triangulated irregular networks (TIN), and triangulated grids. A suite of sophisticated tools allows you to manipulate modeled surfaces into high quality finished maps and perform a variety of engineering computations. Quicksurf meets the needs of a broad range of professional disciplines such as civil, environmental, petroleum and mining engineering, geologic mapping and exploration, surveying, photogrammetry and topographic mapping, landscape architecture, oceanography and surface visualization. Spatial Explorer is a visualization tool which works by itself or together with Quicksurf inside of AutoCAD Release 13 . Spatial Explorer builds 3D fence diagrams, 3D block diagrams and 2D cross-sections cut anywhere through your model. Typical input data are the x, y, z points representing where the surfaces were penetrated. For wellbore information, this consists of the well location (x, y) and elevations for each horizon penetrated.(www.schreiber.com)

The tunnel behavior is studied by means of the following programs code: H.H. Eistein's analytical method; K. Terzaghi analytical method; Method of the characteristic lines: non linear yield criteria (Hoek - Brown) and linear yield criteria (Mohr - Coulomb); Pseudo - tridimensional (Panet). and with some commercial program : Dips discontinuities representation, Swedge stability analysis of superficial rock wedges, Unwedge stability analysis of underground rock wedges. Wülff stereographic net. ( Rocscience )

S.G.A.I S.r.l. has developed a program that uses the limit equilibrium theory to compute the safety factor of soil and rock slopes for a variety of methods

- Bishop's
- Janbu's
- Morgenstern-Price
- Bell

the program allows static or seismic analyses, several water table conditions in total or effective stress, external vertical and horizontal load

S.G.A.I. has developed with contributions of Italian and foreigner consulting a program to determine the "flood profile" resulting from the opening of the outlet or the break of dam including the meet of French and Swiss standard. Mc Cormak proposed a solving algorithm based on finite difference to integrate the complete motion equation. This program is composed by: a scheme to determine the permanent motion and the following flood profile for a imposed flow as can be expected; a monodimensional kinematics model for studying the flood propagation in river - bed with high slope; a monodimensional hyperbolic model based on a scheme of implicit integration for the study of propagation at the ending of water - course. S.G.A.I. as also the ability to update or modify the program to conform with the data on flood, during the early years of activity at the real river behavior.

S.G.A.I. can utilize a numerical model designed to simulate long-term shoreline change at coastal engineering project as produced by spatial and temporal changes in longshore sand transport. Typical longshore extents and time periods of modeled projects can be in the ranges of 1 to 100 km. and 1 to 100 months, respectively, and almost arbitrary numbers and combinations of groins detached breakwater, seawalls, jetties, and beach fills can represented. the program can efficiently and accurately calculate coastal sediment processes from engineering data and the limitation in both the data and the knowledge of sediment transport and beach change. integrated programs for large kind of wave analysis is also available es: Wave prediction: windspeed adjustment and wave growth, Beta-Rayleigh distribution Extremal significant wave height analysis, constituent tide record. Wave Theory: Linear ,Cnoidal Fourier series. Wave Transformation: Linear wave theory with Snell's law, Irregular wave transformation (Goda's method),Combined diffractional reflection by vertical wedge. Structural design: Breakwater design using Hudson and related equations, Toe protection design, Nonbreaking wave force on vertical walls, Rubble-mound revetment design. Wave runup, transmission and overtopping. Littoral process: Longshore sediment transport, Numerical simulation of time-dependent beach and dune erosion, Calculations of composite grain size distribution, Beach nourishment overfill ratio and volume. Inlet process.

Generalized program of hydrologic simulation and water quality analysis completed with pre and post processors. The program is used to assess the effects of land-use change, reservoir operation, point or non point source treatment alternative, flow diversion, etc. and can simulate one or many pervious or impervious unit area discharging to one or many river reaches or reservoir. The program simulates interception soil moisture, surface runoff, interflow, base flow, snowpack depth and water content, snowmelt, evaptraspiration, ground-water recharge, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, pesticide, conservatives, fecal coliforms, sediment detachment and transporting, sediment routing by particle size, channel routing, reservoir routing, constituent routing, pH, ammonia, nitrite-nitrate, organic nitrogen, orthophosphate, organic phosphorus, phytoplankton, and zooplankton.

SGAI has developed a program code that compute stress and deformation of a multi - anchored sheet pile. The sheet pile is divided in a user defined number of monodimensional finite element then is subjected at the external action of soil pressure under the excavation sequence, at the hydrostatic pressure and at the anchor reaction. The soil reaction during the excavation sequence are computed according to the elasto-plastic behavior of soil and considering the hysteresis of soil under cycling load. The soil is divided in independent element, corresponding at the sheet pile element, to analyze the soil structure interaction problem. On the two side of sheet pile the soil reaction are simulated with the insertion of spring (Winkler theory): every spring is characterized with: limit value of active and passive pressure, rest pressure and soil reaction modulus.